Trackman Traits - Pitching: 2023 RHP Cadwell Turner (Calloway County)

Zach Guth
KY Contributor/PA-NY Advanced Scout

Welcome to Trackman Traits! In this piece we will be dissecting the numbers the Trackman produces and the effect they can have on a pitcher's approach. Below there will be definitions of each category that we believe to be the most important for a young arm to keep in mind as well as breaking down an arm and giving suggestions on how they can improve their game. Keep in mind, in some categories it is better to be further away from average even if the numbers are wavering on below average. 


Fastball velocity doesn't go much deeper than just looking at the numbers and comparing them to the graphic below! Fastball velocity complements just about all of the other metrics that are measured. If you throw hard, it makes all your other pitches/metrics even better.


Spin rate is a measurement that if you are below average or above average, you can pitch with more room for error. On the other hand, if you are average you should try to throw in the bottom half of the zone with exceptional command. High spin fastballs profile as one that is frequently described as having "late life". Low spin fastballs tend to profile as a fastball that has heavy feel to it. Pitch movement is still dependent on spin direction of the pitch but Trackman does not have that metric displayed on profiles. 


Bauer Units are an easier way of determining how useful the spin numbers are compared to the velocity. We can calculate this metric by taking average spin rate and dividing it by average velocity. Bauer Units are useful because we can have a case of two pitchers with the same spin numbers, ex. 2200 RPM, but one pitcher throws 90 MPH and the other throws 83 MPH. The pitcher throwing 90 MPH with 2200 spin is not as impressive as the pitcher throwing 83 MPH with the same spin. Typically, we would tell the harder throwing pitcher to throw up in the zone purely off his velocity and his high spin, but because his Bauer Units would equate to around 24 that would be only 1 unit off of average (23), therefore he would want to hammer the bottom of the zone. On the other side, the pitcher throwing 83 MPH has a Bauer Unit measurement of 26 which is incredibly impressive. This would allow him to throw up in the zone even though his velocity is not blow away type numbers because he produces above average spin with that slated velocity. 


As far as deception and importance goes, fast induced vertical break (IVB) may be the most important. Induced vertical break is not what is sounds. IVB simply means the pitch is "breaking" upward from the average level a pitch falls from release to home plate. This is a stat that you want to stay away from being average at. Fortunately, this can be tweaked slightly depending on release height. To put it simply, the higher number =  more "rise" the pitch has compared to average. Lower number = more depth the pitch has to it. 


Spin rate on curveballs is pretty simple: higher spin = nastier stuff. There are some ways to manipulate spin numbers slightly but for the most part spin is spin. At the moment, there are no well known ways to change your spin in a big way. Spin not only dictates how sharp your curveball is, but it can also aid in keeping hitters honest by having similar rotation matching that of your fastball. 

Cadwell Turner

Class of 2023 / UTILITY

Player Information

  • Graduating Class: 2023
  • Primary Position: UTILITY
    Secondary Position: 1B
  • High School: Calloway County
    State: KY
  • Summer Team: Evansville Razorbacks 18U
  • Height: 6-1
    Weight: 210lbs
  • Bat/Throw: R/R

Scouting Report


6-foot-1, 200 pound RHP with athletic frame. Showed a slight uptick in velocity. Long/loose arm action works through a 3/4 slot that produces big arm-side run on the fastball. Fastball sat 80-84 T85. Spin rate max in the 2300's. Showed good feel for 66-68 curveball that he was able to land for strikes. Projects to add additional velocity and has put himself in the conversation of top 2023 arms in the state. Definite high follow.




Fastball Breakdown

Velocity: Topping out at 85 MPH, Turner sets himself up for success up front on paper. When a sophomore is chucking it mid 80's that's always going to turn some heads. At 85 MPH he's checking in just above the top 25% of high school arms. High velo is never a bad thing, especially at a young age. The most important thing about having good velo is being able to command it. With a zone % of 43%, it appears Turner may not have zoned it up as much as he would have liked on this day at first glance, but there's no reason to chalk up one lower percentage day as how Turner is as an entire pitcher. He has repeatable mechanics and utilizes a strong lower half to get down the mound with some ease. If Turner can pump those numbers up around 55-60% he could definitely find himself higher in the rankings. 

Spin Rate (SR): What is more impressive than his velocity, is Turner's true ability to spin the ball. with a max of 2336 RPM and an average of 2160 RPM he finds himself floating somewhere between the top 10% and the top 25% for high school pitchers. With his cruising velo at 80-83 MPH and his average spin being as exceptional as it is, he shapes up to be a top of the zone arm.  

Bauer Units: Bauer Units are valuable in the evaluation of if the spin is good for the level of velocity. Falling in around 31 units, it is apparent that Turner creates some really good spin for his velocity. His spin is well above the typical amount for his velocity. For those without a Trackman unit at their disposal, Bauer Units is an easy, but very surface level, way of determining if you or your athlete's fastball plays up in the zone or not. There are some other things that also go into ball flight (i.e. tilt, release angle, etc.) but this gives you a general idea of whether it is a hoppy fastball or a heavy fastball. 

Induced Vertical Break (IVB): Turner is around the top 25% among high school pitcher for induced vertical break. with a max of 20" on his best fastball, we can assume if he can get dialed in that number will be easily replicated as he begins to grow as a pitcher. So, with this being the case we know that Turner will be a no doubt top of the zone pitcher. With his velocity hopefully continuing the upward trend, he should be a power arm with an advantage pitching in the upper half of the zone. This makes for a tough day facing Turner if you are an opposing hitter. What is also extremely impressive is the amount of horizontal movement on his fastball. Simply by watching his FB on video, you can notice the absurd amount of arm side run on it. 

Curveball Breakdown

Spin Rate (SR): Turner also produces some above average spin on his breaking ball. With an average of 2073 RPM he falls just slightly above the top 50% of HS arms. This has been said in previous articles, but normally when a pitcher has lower spin on his breaking pitches there is another underlying issue. Typically, it is something with release, grip, or forcing the break. My guess is that Turner is trying just a hair too hard to force the pitch to spin a certain way by "snapping" his wrist. The best way to get the pitch to have the highest spin is by gripping and ripping. When you force the pitch to break, it typically has less spin because instead of letting the pitch flow off your fingers, you're forcing your wrist to snap and the ball pops out with less spin. 

Horizontal/Vertical Break: When we look at horizontal movement (HM) you want to think about it on a number line scale from the pitcher's view to home. At pitcher's mound, the measurement would be zero if someone threw a pitch that didn't move to either side. If a pitch moves to the left, it is a negative number and if a pitch moves to the right it would be a positive number. With a IVB measurement of 5" and a HM measurement fo 8.1" to his glove side it makes for an "average" curveball per the numbers. Because we haven't lost sight of the eye test and simply looking at and analyzing breaking pitches, I would like to touch on it. Turner has a top of the line curveball for a '23 arm and could turn it into an elite pitch by the time he is near graduation. Cadwell Turner is an arm to definitely keep an eye on in the coming months of this season. Recruitment should become a real thing, if it hasn't already, and he should be well prepared. 


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